What are the grounds for disputing a Will?

A will can be disputed for the following reasons:

  • The will does not comply with the Wills Act 1837
  • The deceased was coerced into making the will (called undue influence)
  • The deceased did not have capacityto make a will
  • The deceased did not have knowledge and approvalof the will.
  • The will is a forgery or fraud.
  • The will fails to give effect to the deceased’s wishes (called Rectification)

Wills Act 1837

For a will to be valid, it must comply with Section 9 of the Wills Act 1837 which states that a will must:

  • Be in writing and signed by the testator (the person making the will);
  • The testator’s must have intended by his signature for the will to be valid;
  • The testator’s signature must have been witnessed by two or more witnesses which were present at the same time; and
  • The witnesses must each either attest and sign the will or acknowledge the testator’s signature (but not necessarily in the presence of any other witnesses)

Undue Influence

A will can be disputed if the person who made the will was subjected to undue influence, or pressure by a third party.  The law defines pressure as coercion which may be “physical violence, verbal bullying or simply talking to a sick person who is seriously ill in such a way that the person may be induced for quietness sake to do anything.”

The key factor in determining whether there has been undue influence is whether the coercion is such that it overpowered the will of the testator.


The law follows the decision in Banks v Goodfellow which states that a person making a will must have capacity; that is, “sound mind, memory and understanding”.  The testator must:

  • Understand that they are making a will and its effects;
  • Understand the extent of their estate;
  • Understand claims to which he/she ought to give effect;
  • Not be suffering from any “disorder of the mind” that shall “poison his affections, pervert his sense of right, or prevent the exercise of his natural faculties and that no insane delusion shall influence his will in disposing of this property and bring about a disposal which, if the mind had been sound, would not be made”.

There is a presumption that the testator has/had mental capacity if the will appears to be rational and contains no irregularities.

If you suspect that the testator did not have capacity to make their will and/or understand the content of their will, you should take legal advice as soon as possible.  In some circumstances, it may be appropriate to enter a caveat to prevent the estate from being distributed until the matter is resolved satisfactorily.

Determining capacity will usually come down to medical records and witness evidence, particularly from close friends and family.  If the will is determined to be invalid and there is not an earlier valid will, then the estate will be distributed according to the rule of intestacy.

Lack of knowledge and approval

If there are suspicious circumstances surrounding a will, but there is not sufficient evidence to prove undue influence, the Court must be satisfied that the testator had knowledge and approval of the contents of the will. This means that the testator understood that he or she was making a will and the effects of the distribution set out in the will.

If the will has been executed properly and the testator had capacity, it is presumed the testator had knowledge and approval.  However, the following circumstances are those in which it must be proved the testator had knowledge and approval of the content of the will:

  • If the testator is illiterate or blind; or
  • The testator cannot speak or write, or is paralysed;
  • If the testator is deaf and/or dumb;
  • It is alleged that the testator directed another person to sign the will on his or her behalf.

Forgery or fraud

If it is proven that a will has been forged or the signature of the testator has been forged, this will result in the will being declared invalid.  Fraud is defined as “an intentional deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual.”  Fraud will also lead to the will being declared invalid.


The law provides that “if the court is satisfied that a will is so expressed that it fails to carry out the testator’s intentions, in consequence of a:

  • Clerical error; or
  • Failure to understand his intentions,

It may be ordered that the will should be rectified so as to carry out his intentions”.

A “clerical error” is defined as “an error made in the process of recording the intended words of the testator and the drafting or transcription of his will”. For example, if the testator gives instructions to leave all of his children an equal share of the estate but the solicitor did not name all of the children, this would be a clerical error.  However, if the error was because the solicitor (or will writer) did not understand the law, then it would not be a clerical error, but rather professional negligence.

Failure to understand instructions is where the solicitor or will writer simply did not understand the testator’s instructions.  A claim in this respect can only succeed if the following can be shown:

  • The testator’s actual intentions;
  • The will fails to accurately reflect the testator’s intentions;
  • The testator’s intentions in regard to specific clauses in the will;
  • That the solicitor or will writer misunderstood the testator’s instructions; and
  • That the failure to understand the testator’s instructions was the cause of the failure of the will to reflect the testator’s intentions

What do we do

We have a specialist team of contentious probate lawyers.  We have been bringing and defending will dispute claims for years and have been involved in particularly complex claims, including those involving:

  • Agricultural land
  • forgery
  • mirror and mutual wills
  • apparently insolvent estates

We are accredited by the Association of Contentious Trusts and Probate Specialists.

Acting for both Claimants and Defendants means that we understand cases from both sides and gives us an advantage as we understand the different considerations in each case.  This can aid settling claims at an early stage in the appropriate cases.  Mediation is often appropriate in these sorts of claims.


We offer a free initial consultation on any potential claim.

We will discuss the cost options with you.  In some cases, we can offer flexible cost options such as deferring payment of fees and no-win-no-fee arrangements.  In other cases, we can offer fixed fees or capped fees.

Successful Claimants can usually expect to recover their costs from the other party to the claim or from the estate.

For more details, contact us for free on 01392 207761 or willdisputes@tozers.co.uk